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The issue of restitution has garnered conventional legitimacy as various countries including the United States, have witnessed a resurgence of the reparations debate based on the institutionalized and societal discrimination against descendants of the African Diaspora in the West. However, scholars, historians, as well as grassroots organizations and mainstream leaders have yet to prepare sufficient plans and recommendations regarding the form and estimated amount of restitution. This article will discuss areas in which state actors must provide for Black Americans as a result of historical attenuation of current social and economic maladies that plague Black Americans due to the vestiges of the slave trade. This articulate concludes that Black Americans must articulate specific, comprehensive economic demands to the international community through a legitimate broad representation of the Black American experience who do not promote religious, racial, or cultural intolerance and have restorative justice as their primary aim.


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19 Jul 2022
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  • Alternative title
    • The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade's Vestiges

  • Journal title
    • International Social Science Review

  • Volume
    • 92

  • Issue
    • 2

  • Date submitted

    19 July 2022

  • Keywords
  • Additional information
    • Acknowledgements:

      Patricia M. Muhammad holds a Juris Doctor from the University of Baltimore and is an attorney and consultant focusing on International Law, Human Rights, and Civil Rights.