Skip to main content


Petting Fetishes:

Fetishes and Gender Oppression in M. Butterfly and For Whom the Bell Tolls

M. Butterfly by Henry Hwang and For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway both portray ideas of masculinity in countries experiencing political turmoil. Both pieces express ideas of masculinity from the perspective of Western foreigners in newly developing political settings post World War (Hwang’s post WWII China and Hemmingway’s post WWI, pre WWII Spain). Hwang’s play depicts Gallimard’s personal and national perception through the lens of Orientalist masculinity. Hemmingway’s novel depicts hyper-nationalism and narcissism through Robert Jordan’s expressed ideas of self and masculinity. Although both pieces have been celebrated as acclaimed literary works, the rhetoric of fetishes and gender oppression have not been closely examined. My paper examines how the main characters in the two pieces express dehumanizing fetishized ideas and gender oppression in their rhetorical choices, especially the use of the terms of endearment. My essay explores ideas of masculinity, femininity, gender oppression, fetishes, and Western domination in these works and their ideological impact on readers.


File nameDate UploadedVisibilityFile size
18 Jul 2022
49.5 kB
18 Jul 2022
1.14 MB



  • Subject
    • History, Anthropology, & Philosophy

  • Institution
    • Dahlonega

  • Event location
    • LTC 382

  • Event date
    • 30 March 2015

  • Date submitted

    18 July 2022

  • Additional information
    • Acknowledgements:

      Dr. Kyounghye Kwon