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Throughout modern history, women have been presented with images of a hyper-sexualized and objectified female in media. Role models for females are predominantly focused on sex appeal (Marilyn Monroe,Nikki Minaj). The tremendous recent expansion of media and technology has increased the amount, extent, and frequency of this objectification. As provocative and violent images become normalized, it is important to examine the effect on men and women.

Fischer&Greitemeyer(2006) found that after listening to music with misogynistic lyrics, males behaved more aggressively toward a female, but not a male, confederate. Armstrong(2001) concluded women have long been presented in an inferior manner in the music industry, and that there is a need for this to be eradicated. Eradication cannot occur until the problem is recognized in its entirety. Specific genres of music have a reputation for objectifying women(rap&hip-hop), but this trend occurs in most genres: many perpetuate objectification of women on a continuum, from hyper-sexualizing women and relationships with women to desensitization of sexual assault and violence.

In this study, a variety of music genres as well as actual lyrics were rated for objectification and sexual violence. Responses were surprising:many rated lyrics as significantly objectifying and violent, even though they indicated the relevant genre was free from either or both. Participants seemed to most commonly associate rap with objectification/violence. Results are discussed in terms of societal desensitization to the objectification of women.


This is a metadata-only record.



  • Subject
    • History, Anthropology, & Philosophy

  • Institution
    • Dahlonega

  • Event location
    • Library Room 269:Open Classroom

  • Event date
    • 31 March 2014

  • Date submitted

    18 July 2022

  • Additional information
    • Acknowledgements:

      Kelly Cate