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The β1-adrenergic regulation of cardiac myocyte contraction plays an important role in regulating heart function. Activation of this system leads to an increased heart rate and stronger myocyte contraction. However, chronic stimulation of the β1-adrenergic signaling system can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. To understand the mechanisms of action of β1-adrenoceptors, a mathematical model of cardiac myocyte contraction that includes the β1-adrenergic system was developed and studied. The model was able to simulate major experimental protocols for measurements of steady-state force-calcium relationships, cross-bridge release rate and force development rate, force-velocity relationship, and force redevelopment rate. It also reproduced quite well frequency and isoproterenol dependencies for intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) transients, total contraction force, and sarcomere shortening. The mathematical model suggested the mechanisms of increased contraction force and myocyte shortening on stimulation of β1-adrenergic receptors is due to phosphorylation of troponin I and myosin-binding protein C and increased [Ca2+]i transient resulting from activation of the β1-adrenergic signaling system. The model was used to simulate work-loop contractions and estimate the power during the cardiac cycle as well as the effects of 4-aminopyridine and tedisamil on the myocyte contraction. The developed mathematical model can be used further for simulations of contraction of ventricular myocytes from genetically modified mice and myocytes from mice with chronic cardiac diseases.


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  • DPLA rights
    • Copyright 2020 the American Physiological Society

  • Institution
    • Blue Ridge

  • Publisher
    • American Physiological Society

  • Date submitted

    19 July 2022

  • Additional information
    • Author Biography:

      Paula Mullins is an Assistant Professor of Mathematics at the Blue Ridge campus of the University of North Georgia. Vladimir Bondarenko is an Associate Professor of Mathematics at Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia.

      Book or Journal Information:

      American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol. 318, No 2