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Persons with visual impairments have two main options for independent mobility, a long white cane or a guide dog (GD). Previous research indicates this population has decreased physical activity across all age groups, correlating to higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Barriers to mobility, such as independent walking, have been demonstrated to be a significant secondary pathway to increased mortality among visually impaired persons over the age of 50. Few studies report on how either of these mobility aids affect the metabolic demand of ambulation and no research exists exploring the use or validity of a functional exertion test for individuals with visual impairment under usual mobility. The aim of this study was twofold:

  1. to compare the metabolic demand of ambulation with a long white cane to that with a GD; and 2) to assess the use of the six-minute walk test in the visually impaired population.


File nameDate UploadedVisibilityFile size
11 Jul 2023
261 kB



  • Date submitted

    11 July 2023