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This study examined virtual reality (VR) as a means of delivery for mindfulness practice compared to the traditional form of instruction to establish proof of concept. The study utilized an Oculus Rift (Facebook Technologies, LLC)© and the Perfect (NDreams)© visual and sound environment while attending Hill’s Mindfulness Practice (HMP)©. Participants were randomized into three groups: 1) VR+HMP instruction, 2) HMP only instruction, and 3) a Waitlist control. Participants in the VR+HMP or HMP groups experienced six 10-minute sessions of mindfulness practice that included: 1) Body Scan, 2) Object Attention, 3) Focused Breathing, 4) Grounding, 5) Dealing with Difficult Emotions and Sensation, and 6) Self-Compassion. These sessions are based on a combination of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (Kabat Zinn, 1990) and Koru for emerging adults (Roger & Maytan, 2012). Participants completed pre- and post-assessments for the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen, et al., 1983), Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Participants were expected to have no experience with mindfulness prior to study entry. Participants were expected to practice the mindfulness instruction on their own for 10 minutes each day, collected either online or paper copy. In examining the scores of the MAAS, an interaction (F(2,20)=5.13, p=.02, η2=.34) qualified the main effect of the experience (F(2,20)=4.53, p=.02, η2=.31). There was no main effect of the training (F(1,20)=0.25, p>.05, η2=.01). The interaction showed an increase in mindfulness awareness in the VR group, thus demonstrating proof of concept.


File nameDate UploadedVisibilityFile size
19 Jul 2022
464 MB



  • Subject
    • Psychological Science

  • Institution
    • Dahlonega

  • Event date
    • 17 April 2020

  • Date submitted

    19 July 2022

  • Additional information
    • Acknowledgements:

      Chuck Robertson, Michele Hill