Skip to main content


There is a preoccupation in the entrepreneurship literature with the optimism of entrepreneurs and marked neglect of their pessimism and realism. This article posits that in addition to optimism, though often overlooked, “pessimism” may be a coexisting disposition in the entrepreneurs’ mindset, integral to explanations of their role performances. We developed an Entrepreneur Optimism - Realism - Pessimism (EORP) Model, which incorporates optimism, pessimism and realism within a common conceptual framework. Optimism and pessimism are dispositions that focus on current and future outcomes and the two intersect at what we term an axis of realism – the complex of challenges and outcomes from entrepreneurial activities. The EORP model is tested utilizing data derived from a survey of youth entrepreneurs in the developing country of Guyana. The findings revealed statistically significant correlations among the optimism, pessimism and realism of entrepreneurs and may have implications for an extended theoretical understanding of entrepreneurial dispositions.


This is a metadata-only record.