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School field trips provide a space for students to imagine alternative ways of learning and thinking. This qualitative study investigated the visits of middle and high schools to a public cemetery in the United States. Bernstein’s concepts of classification and framing were adopted to provide a systematic framework for analyzing power relationship and degree of control over content delivered by cemetery tour guides. Findings identified guides’ historical information conveyed through description and narrative with few connections to state standards. Proposed recommendations include reconceptualizing guides’ training that incorporates culturally relevant pedagogy and social justice principles when leading diverse student populations.


This is a metadata-only record.



  • Institution
    • Dahlonega

  • Publisher
    • Elsevier

  • Date submitted

    20 July 2022

  • Keywords
  • Additional information
    • Author Biography:

      His research interests include professional development of pre- and in-service teachers, values in education, program evaluation, citizenship and human rights education, charter schools, and teaching and learning in museums. He oversees the curriculum and instruction of the Center for Language Education (CLE) organizes teacher-training programs for international educators, and recruits international students for the CLE and the University of North Georgia.

      Book or Journal Information:

      International Journal of Educational Research