Skip to main content


Communication with active United States Navy submarines is often difficult while the submarines are in active operation. Submarines must float close to the surface of the ocean, at a depth of less than thirty meters, to engage in heavy communication with command operations. When a submarine is on a mission; however, the submarine will operate at depths of one-hundred meters or greater, and significant communication is limited. A solution to this communication limitation includes the use of very-low or extremely-low frequency transmissions. Transfer of information is at a rate of 8 bytes/second, so only basic encrypted text can be transmitted to the operating submarine. To achieve this communication method, a buoy must be designed to house the electrical hardware that emits the very-low and extremely-low frequency signals. The buoy is built to withstand deployment from a P-8 Poseidon aircraft at an altitude of 500; 10,000; and 35,000 feet. Once the buoy has been deployed, it must survive harsh oceanic conditions for at least six months, which includes heating and cooling considerations, durability, long-term power storage, and power generation.


File nameDate UploadedVisibilityFile size
19 Jul 2022
76.9 kB



  • Event location
    • Nesbitt 2203

  • Event date
    • 2 November 2019

  • Date submitted

    19 July 2022