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Socio-economic status (SES) is known to influence factors such as (1) the parenting style used in the family, (2) the children’s internalizing and externalizing, and (3) the child's achievement level at school. Much less is known about how SES influences the associations between these factors. For example, previous research has shown that a parenting style that incorporates both high emotional responsiveness with high demandingness results in a child who is disciplined and caring. However, much of this previous research has focused on white, middle to upper-class families. This leaves open the possibility that this association will not be as consistent when minority, lower-class families are examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold. First, this study considered the associations between the parenting style used in the family, a child's internalizing and externalizing, and the child's achievement level at school while also considering how a family's SES modified these associations. Second, it also considered to what degree a child's well-being mediates the associations between parenting style and achievement. In order to investigate these associations, archival data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was analyzed. In this study, parents reported their parenting style and the emotions and behaviors of their children. Children’s achievement level was assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson achievement test. The mediation analysis found that the child’s internalizing and externalizing mediated the relationship between the negative punishment parental style and the child’s broad reading level. It was also found that SES amplified the association between parental warmth and the child’s academic achievement. The discussion will focus on the extent of SES influencing these relationships and what preventative measures can be used in minority, lower-class families to decrease the gap of achievement between middle to upper-class families and lower-class families.


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19 Jul 2022
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  • Event location
    • Cleveland Ballroom

  • Event date
    • 2 November 2019

  • Date submitted

    19 July 2022