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Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes that are capable of degrading frequently used beta-lactam antibiotics. Organisms that produce these enzymes are often multi-drug resistant. ESBLs are commonly produced by the Enterobacteriaceae group of gram negative bacteria that are naturally occurring gut microbiota. Currently, ESBLs pose a significant health threat due to their ability to cause a multitude of difficult to treat infections and are one of the leading causes of death world-wide. The bla genes that code for ESBL can be passed via horizontal transmission. As of yet, there is no data on prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in North Georgia water. Flat creek is located in North Georgia and runs directly into Lake Lanier, a main source of drinking water for the Atlanta area and a popular spot for water recreation. We obtained efferent and afferent water samples from Flat Creek Water Reclamation Center in Hall County Georgia. These water samples were filtered, grown in an enrichment media and plated on selective media that yielded the isolation of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We found ESBL producing enterobacteria in all samples tested. Further identification methods revealed the presence of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli. Following identification, disk diffusion method was used to test susceptibility of the isolates to several commonly used antibiotics. This testing revealed that all isolates were multi-drug resistant. Lastly, DNA was extracted from the isolates to confirm the presence of bla genes that encode for ESBLs by agarose gel electrophoresis.


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19 Jul 2022
157 kB
19 Jul 2022
203 kB
19 Jul 2022
157 kB



  • Subject
    • Biology

  • Institution
    • Gainesville

  • Event location
    • Nesbitt 4101

  • Event date
    • 23 March 2018

  • Date submitted

    19 July 2022

  • Additional information
    • Acknowledgements:

      Swapna Bhat, Jeanelle Morgan, Margi Flood