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Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes that are capable of degrading frequently used antibiotics such as, penicillin and cephalosporin. Organisms that produce these enzymes are therefore multi-drug resistant. ESBLs are commonly produced by Enterobacteriaceae group of bacteria that are normal gut flora. Since first identified in 1893, ESBLs have become increasingly prevalent due to the fact that ESBL enzymes are plasmid mediated, thus their resistant genes are easily transferred between bacteria. Currently, ESBLs pose a significant health threat due to their ability to cause a multitude of difficult to treat infections and are one of the leading causes of death world-wide. As of yet, there is no data on prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in North Georgia water sources. Flat creak is located in North Georgia and runs directly into Lake Lanier, which is used for swimming and drinking water. We obtained efferent and afferent water samples from Flat Creek Water Reclamation Center in Hall County Georgia. These water samples were filtered, grown on an enrichment media and plated on selective media that allowed isolation of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We found ESBL producing enterobacteria in all the samples. Further identification methods revealed the presence of ESBL producing Kebsiella pneumoniae, Kebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli. Currently we are confirming the presence of bla genes that encode for ESBL in our isolates. We are also carrying out the disk diffusion method to test susceptibility of the isolates to several commonly used antibiotics.


This is a metadata-only record.



  • Subject
    • Biology

  • Institution
    • Gainesville

  • Event location
    • Nesbitt 3204

  • Event date
    • 25 March 2016

  • Date submitted

    18 July 2022

  • Additional information
    • Acknowledgements:

      Jeanelle Morgan, Swapna Bhat, and Margi Flood