Skip to main content


The nursing profession has a long history of using the traditional methods of intramuscular injections (IM), including the z-track and air-bubble methods. This evidence-based project examined the PICOT question: In the adult patient, how does the z-track method compare to the air-bubble method when preventing seepage of medication and patient pain via intramuscular injections? An extensive literature review was conducted using medical databases including: CINAHL, EbscoHOST, and Medline. From these databases, eleven articles were located and five were selected for review. Of the five articles examined, four randomized control trials indicated that the z-track method reduces patient pain and prevents the seepage of medication. Current research indicates that nurses should administer IM injections via the z-track method; however, more research is needed to further influence evidence-based practice.


This is a metadata-only record.



  • Event location
    • Open 3rd Floor

  • Event date
    • 4 April 2013

  • Date submitted

    18 July 2022

  • Additional information
    • Acknowledgements:

      Dianne Nelson